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Introduction to "Islamic Capitalism and Finance: Origins, Evolution and the Future" by Murat Çizakça. (2011)

2020.01.14 10:00 Waterfall67a Introduction to "Islamic Capitalism and Finance: Origins, Evolution and the Future" by Murat Çizakça. (2011)

Source: https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=xFfe9bC7_70C&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=islamic+perspective+on+capitalism&ots=JVHg_qwPE8&sig=iaa0hQBoBsyrC3uLFcDQBPpoYoI#v=onepage&q&f=false
Can Islamic capitalism, which has served Muslims so well for centuries in different periods in history, provide a viable alternative economic system to humanity? In this age of recession, the worst since 1929, this is surely a provocative question. But if this alternative is to emerge and serve mankind as a gift of the Islamic world, it must, first of all, be well understood. To start with, was there, indeed, an Islamic capitalism? Are we justified to call this system that emerged a thousand years before Adam Smith, capitalistic? What are the principles upon which this system has been built? What were the institutions which developed from these principles? How have they functioned and evolved, and most important of all, can they be modernized to address today's needs? This book aims to address these problems.
It would be appropriate to provide now a brief explanation of the term Islamic capitalism. Indeed, capitalism, for many not exactly a respectable term, is strongly associated with the West. It may therefore seem strange that the economic system practised by the Islamic world from the seventh century to roughly the middle of the thirteenth century, also known as the classical age of Islam, should be referred to with this term. But, subject to certain caveats, the characteristics of this economic system to which I will refer shortly can be best described with the term capitalism. What these caveats are will become clear below. Meanwhile let us note that the two capitalisms share important characteristics. Indeed, the three most important rules crucial to economic development identified by the Western new institutional economics - property rights protection, enforcement of contracts and good governance - constitute the essential principles of Islamic capitalism as well.
Islamic capitalism of the classical age was an economic system derived basically from the Qur'an and Prophetic traditions. Sincere Muslims, who have great respect for these sources, may therefore, with some justification, find the term irksome. But there is strong evidence that Islam had developed its own capitalism. Consider for instance that the bulk of the Islamic jurisprudence was written down by men most of whom were merchants. More importantly, even Prophet Muhammad, himself, was a merchant, who firmly believed in free markets and refused to interfere in prices. Moreover, of the four righteous Caliphs, Abu Bakr was a cloth merchant and Uthman was an importer of cereals.(1)
Great Islamic philosophers also had firm opinions about markets. This is not surprising, because most of them had been appointed as muhtesibs, officials in charge of markets, and earned their living as such. Consequently, being in charge of the smooth functioning of markets, they had a profound understanding of the way markets actually functioned. Continuous and close observation of markets instilled in their minds respect for private property. For instance, Al-Shatibi and Al-Ghazali consider the protection of property, hifz al-mal, as one of the five purposes of Islamic jurisprudence, Maqasid al-Shari'ah.(2) The great fourteenth-century historian and philosopher Ibn Khaldun had highly sophisticated ideas about economics and, reflecting the Prophet, favoured minimum state interference in the economy.(3)
The immense importance of trade for Muslims is also demonstrated by the transfer of mercantile concepts to the religious sphere: the good and bad deeds of each person are registered in a personal account book. The Muslim will be judged according to these deeds recorded and will be rewarded with paradise if his good deeds exceed his sins. Having faith is like a profitable transaction, participating in the struggle of the Prophet is like giving a loan to God; each Muslim has a covenant (contract) with God.(4) It is believed that Allah buys Muslims' lives and properties and sells them, in return, the paradise.(5) This means that if a Muslim spends his/her life and property in the cause of Allah, he/she would be rewarded with entry to the paradise. But to be able to spend one's property in this way, property needs to be earned first. Therefore, it is believed that an honest merchant struggling to earn and enlarge his assets legitimately will be exalted and shall join the ranks of the martyrs.(6)
Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that Islam, a religion born in the Arabian Desert, where trade constituted the most important, perhaps even the sole economic activity, favours merchants, property rights, free trade and market economy.(7) The Prophet himself has informed us that trade constituted nine-tenths of the livelihood of early Muslims.(8)
Because an economic system which favours merchants, and respects property rights and free trade, applies the principles of market economy and market wage rate and treats interference in the markets as transgression and sinful would be considered capitalist,(9) I have no qualms about calling this Islamic economic system as such, even though this term is so closely associated with Western experience.(10) Moreover, another condition of capitalism, the ownership of the factors of production by private persons, can also be observed in the Arabian Peninsula during the age of the Prophet. Not only is the market wage rate mentioned in the Qur'an, there is also definitive evidence about its widespread application across centuries.(11) Still another condition of capitalism is the existence of buyers who purchase goods not only for their own immediate consumption but also for further sale to third persons.(12) The fact that classical Islamic jurists had felt the need to approve certain popular partnerships such as wujuh (sharikat al-mafalis), which specifically focused on the resale of merchandise to third parties, indicates that this condition also found widespread application. Furthermore, the West should not have a monopoly over this term, particularly because many important principles, institutions, even laws, of the medieval Western European economy, which formed the nucleus of the modern Western capitalism later, have been borrowed from the Islamic world.(13)
Thus, the fact that the medieval Islamic economy was not industrialized, does not disqualify it from being capitalistic.(14) That capitalism is not necessarily associated exclusively with industrialization, has been confirmed long ago by Fernand Braudel.(15) Indeed, some eminent historians from Mommsen to Pirenne have considered many ancient civilizations such as Babylonia, ancient Greece, Rome and China as capitalist. This has led to a fierce and ideological Marxist counterattack. Karl Polanyi, for instance, ridiculed historians for arguing that capitalist merchants existed in ancient Mesopotamia. This is despite the fact that thousands of cuneiform tablets have survived, proving the existence of commercial correspondence between Assyrian and Anatolian capitalists. Van Leur and Steensgaard, fearing the Marxist witch hunt, have put all the powerful capitalist merchants of the oriental spice trade under the category of 'pedlars'.(16) In short, orthodox Marxism refuses to accept capitalism before the industrial revolution and in doing so it contradicts Marx himself, who did recognize its existence in medieval Italian city states.(17) It goes without saying that I do not feel bound in this book by the confines of this orthodoxy.
The capitalism that I am referring to here is pre-industrial, commercial capitalism. It naturally differs from the industrial capitalism referred to by Adam Smith and Karl Marx.(18) Why this Islamic commercial capitalism differs from the industrial capitalism and why the latter did not emerge in the Islamic world will be discussed below.
There are essentially two traditional approaches to characterizing a society capitalistic: statistical or institutional. The former assumes that more than 50 per cent of the total output was produced by capitalistic methods, while the latter focuses on the government and customs of the country, its written and unwritten laws and whether capitalistic forms of production and exchange were preferred over other forms.(19) I have already mentioned above that the capitalistic commercial sector of the classical Islamic economy probably constituted some 90 per cent of the total economy. Since it is very difficult to confirm this quantitatively for an economy that emerged fifteen centuries ago, I will prefer the second method and focus in this book not so much on the theory and statistics of capitalism, but rather, on its institutions and their evolution.
In addition to these two traditional approaches, there has emerged in the 1970s a third, 'new', approach to determine whether a society was capitalistic. This is the entrepreneurial history. As the name suggests, this approach focuses on explaining economic change by focusing on business management. All the traditional three factors of production - land, labour and capital - are given equal weight while the fourth element - entrepreneurship - is given prime importance. Even profit maximization, the most traditional guide of economists, becomes modified by the personal preferences of the entrepreneur in this scheme.(20) This third approach will also be adopted in this book. This is not only because of the wealth of information we have on Islamic entrepreneurship but also because of the modified character of profit maximization practised by the homo-Islamicus.
Finally, Immanuel Wallerstein pursues a different approach and first identifies the conditions necessary for the emergence of a capitalist system and then explains how and why these conditions could not develop before the late fifteenth century in Europe.(21) Nearly all of these conditions, which Wallerstein approaches negatively, actually, existed in classical Islam. First, he makes the point that in history, societies had many considerations and these usually intruded upon the process of capital accumulation. Then he says:
"Whenever over time, it was the accumulation of capital that regularly took priority over alternative objectives... we are observing a capitalist system in operation."
As we will see below, classical Islam considers capital accumulation as the conditio sine qua non for the performance of the pilgrimage as well as the payment of zakat, two of the five pillars of Islam. Thus, capital accumulation is given a sacred status, which enables a Muslim to perform his prayers.
Another condition Wallerstein identifies is the ability to make profit - endless profit. This condition was also fulfilled. In classical Islam it was not any public authority but competition which controlled profits. Classical Islam does not impose any maximum limit upon the profits a Muslim can generate. The only condition that is imposed is that profits should be earned through legitimate, halal, means. A Muslim merchant would certainly wish to make endless profits because this would not only enable him to finance his and close relatives' pilgrimage expenses and zakat payments, but it would also enable him, by establishing a waqf, to finance the needs of other Muslims. As we will see below, establishment of a waqf would save a Muslim's soul in the Hereafter.
Wallerstein then refers to the non-availability of one or more elements of the process - the accumulated stock in money form, the labour power, the network of distributors, the consumers, etc.- to explain why capitalism rarely emerged in history. Of these, only the availability of money appears to have been a serious impediment, but as will be explained below, this problem was solved within a very short time after the revelation. The solution was so definitive and money became so widely available that even Europe was re-monetized thanks to Islamic coins.(22)
In view of all the arguments presented above, we are justified to claim that there is an economic system called Islamic capitalism, in which objectives of capital accumulation and religion are intimately fused and inseparable. Remarkably, this Islamic capitalism was born more than a thousand years before Adam Smith.
Finance and financial entrepreneurship may be the most important components of any capitalist system. Islamic finance, however, has a rather remarkable feature: a segmented time frame. While, on the one hand, it is based upon the classical sources of Islam dating from the seventh century, it is generally believed that this is a new field of finance and that all its major institutions have been invented during the last 40 years or so. This way of thinking is reflected in the organizational structure of every Islamic bank. Indeed, each Islamic bank has a Shari'ah board, which supervises the directors of the bank. Thus seventh century Islamic jurisprudence and modem finance try to coexist.
Focusing exclusively on classical Islamic jurisprudence, fiqh, the bulk of the literature on Islamic finance implicitly assumes that from the end of the eighth century, when the most important works of Islamic jurisprudence were completed, until the 1960s, when Ahmed al-Naggar started his Mit Ghamr experiment,(23) that is, for more than a millennium, nothing of any significance happened in Islamic finance. Thus the entire field of applied fiqh is simply ignored and consequently there is near total ignorance about how the fiqh had been actually applied across centuries. The by-product of this ignorance is that, with a few exceptions,(24) the evolution of Islamic financial institutions remains largely unknown.
A basic point of this book is that Islamic finance is actually fifteen centuries old. Therefore, like its Western counterpart, it is actually the end product of a long-lasting evolution. The continuity of Islamic finance is even more remarkable than that of Western finance. This is because its basic principles, particularly the stringent interest prohibition enshrined in the Qur'an, have remained unchanged ever since the seventh century. This cannot be said for Western finance, which not only went through a very gradual dilution of the interest prohibition, but also the cataclysmic 'Enlightenment' of the eighteenth century. With its basic principles remaining intact, Islamic finance exhibits a much greater degree of continuity than Western finance. One of the main purposes of this book is to demonstrate this continuity as well as the evolution of Islamic financial institutions.
Indeed, the origins of Islamic finance can be traced back to the very birth of Islam, and even earlier, to the pre-Islamic era. This is attested by the fact that Prophet Muhammad had been involved in mudaraba ventures, a pre-Islamic partnership form, before the revelation.(25) Thus, there is no doubt that the wisdom of pre-Islamic civilizations was incorporated into Islam. This was done through a process of Islamization, that is to say, by a process of selection and elimination whereby pre-Islamic institutions were closely examined and those that did not conflict with the basic teachings of Islam were accepted.
Many pre-Islamic institutions were incorporated into the Islamic jurisprudence this way.(26) It is generally agreed that this process was completed by the end of the eighth century.
At this point, the term Islamic finance must be explained. By this term, a whole spectrum of financial activities is meant. But banking in the Western sense is not. This is because, whereas Western banking is based upon deposit and its commercial exploitation, i.e., relending it with a premium, Islamic law recognizes deposit in the form of wadia only. That is to say, safe-keeping plain and simple without any further benefit either to the depositor or the depositary, These radically different financial concepts had far-reaching consequences, which will be explained later. But one consequence must be mentioned here. In the Islamic world, although banking activities and a host of financial transactions existed, they were practised by merchants, who needed to finance their commercial transactions. But specialized institutions, as we know them today, focusing entirely on financial transactions cannot be observed in medieval Islam.(27)
What then were these financial transactions and how were they carried out in the absence of banks? They can be categorized into two main groups: financing the entrepreneur and transferring capital across time and space. The former was done primarily by utilizing various forms of business partnerships, such as the mudaraba, mufawada, inan, wujuh etc., while the latter was done by instruments called hawala or suftaja. Sales based upon deferred payments were also very important.(28) These institutions and instruments will be explained later. But it should suffice here to note that in the period from the seventh to the thirteenth centuries, they were the most advanced financial institutions. Indeed at least one of them, actually the most important one, the mudaraba, was borrowed, in all probability, by Europeans from Muslims.(29) Actually, there is a substantial body of evidence that other important Islamic institutions such as waqfs were also borrowed by the Europeans.(30)
At this point one may wonder why Europe, in the medieval era, should have borrowed some of its most important institutions from the Islamic world. Since detailed studies of this phenomenon have been made elsewhere,(31) it will be briefly stated here that Europe went through a dramatic period of discontinuity after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. This discontinuity was exacerbated by the Catholic Church trying to establish its complete monopoly over the pre-Christian heritage. Muslims, by contrast, openly embraced the combined wisdom of ancient Greece, Rome, Iran and India and expanded it considerably further.(32) Consequently, the Islamic world enjoyed a higher level of civilization in the medieval era.
It has been argued that between the eighth and the eleventh centuries Europe came to be increasingly dominated by the Church. The Church imposed a very strict prohibition of interest and discouraged trade and capitalist accumulation. In this period Western Europe was deprived of its bankers, great merchants and contractors. Europe increasingly succumbed to barter, the only method of commerce according to the church that was free of any suspicion of usury.(33)
Meanwhile, the Church came to own one-third of all land in continental Europe. It was this huge wealth that provided seed finance for the crusaders. Ironically, it was the crusaders, who, by establishing close contact with the Islamic Middle East, lifted up Europe from the dark ages described above.
How could the Islamic world have such a positive effect on Western Europe? What the crusaders found in the Islamic world was fabulous wealth, created and maintained by the classical Islamic capitalism. We will return to these principles in detail.
Thus, we have two capitalist systems: Islamic and, its follower, the Western European capitalism. The latter followed the former with a lag of some 200 to 450 years.(34) Despite this lag, these two capitalisms had much in common. Most significantly, they both applied a stringent prohibition of interest.
Once interest prohibition is taken as a starting point, financial institutions that developed from this maxim in the two capitalist systems had to be quite similar. Moreover, the West did not have to re-invent these institutions developed by Muslims centuries ago. Institutional borrowing rather than invention would generally characterize the follower and the follower increasingly becomes similar to the leader. Indeed, this was the case.(35)
Despite the initial institutional similarity, however, the two systems eventually began to follow different evolutionary paths. To start with, in Europe, the Church itself began to evolve into the very first corporation. This concept, originally developed by the Church, was then borrowed by independent cities, guilds, universities and finally merchants. When merchants began to apply the idea of corporation to business, they quickly combined it with the partnerships they had borrowed from the Islamic world. The resulting synthesis paved the way to the powerful incorporated joint-stock companies of the sixteenth century.(36)
The sixteenth century was also the period when a belated but powerful reaction against the Catholic Church and its corrupt and ruthless Inquisition emerged. The Inquisition represents the most horrifying example of what an alliance of a powerful state and a corrupt Church could do to a society. In a nutshell, it can be asserted that the Inquisition violated two basic human rights: the right to live and to own property. It is well known that whenever the King of Spain needed extra funds, the Inquisition descended upon the rich individuals with the false pretense that they were disguised Muslims or Jews and subjected them to torture beyond human imagination. Nearly always, the torture, which lasted many months, ended with the hapless victims being sent to the stake to be burnt alive. Needless to say, all the properties of the victims were confiscated.(37)
Obviously, this lethal combination of corrupt state and Church had to be stopped. The initial reaction came from the Church itself. Led by a fearless monk and a great leader, Martin Luther, Protestantism started. Helped by the Ottomans, who were quick to appreciate the enormous potential of the movement in splitting the power of their adversary, the Catholic Holy Roman Empire, Protestantism spread rapidly in Central and Northern Europe.(38)
One of the most important disagreements Luther had with the Catholic Church was the established belief and practice that one could save his soul by purchasing indulgences from the Church. This meant that only the rich could go to heaven. Luther vehemently opposed this and argued that heaven could only be reached through faith and hard and honest work. This concept is known as 'justification through faith and work'. Thus, an important by-product of Protestantism was a new attitude towards work, profit and business in general. Hard work, honesty and well-deserved profit were now regarded as pious deeds.(39)
But Protestantism, initiated by Martin Luther and expanded further by Calvin and others, was just the beginning. Two centuries later a group of French philosophers started a new movement, the 'Enlightenment', which also proved to be lasting and powerful. This time not only the Catholic Church, but religion itself was attacked.(40) Pushed to the extreme during the French Revolution, nearly all the values preached by the Church for more than a millennium were now discarded. Gone were not only the confiscated properties of the Church but also many of the moral controls with which businessmen had been conducting their businesses for centuries. Uncontrolled profit, exploitation of labour, in short, all the tenets of a new and ruthless form of capitalism, the modern Westem capitalism, came out of Pandora's box.
If we return to the Islamic world, we observe a considerably different evolution. To start with, not burdened by a centralized universal Church and its corrupt Inquisition, the Islamic world experienced neither a universal Protestant movement nor Enlightenment. Islam neither went through cataclysmic transformations, as Protestantism and Enlightenment, nor experienced a dilution of its influence.(41)
What affected the evolution of Islamic capitalism was not a transformation of the religion itself, but rather the political economy of the various Islamic empires. What we observe in this context is a gradual divergence from the sunnah of the Prophet, which represents the origin of Islamic capitalism.
Concerning the system of land ownership, for instance, whereas the Prophet had distributed conquered land to the warriors and thus confirmed private ownership of land, beginning with Omar the Second Caliph, the Roman system of landownership was introduced in the newly conquered territories of the Sawad (Iraq and parts of Syria). Thus, the pure private ownership of land as practised and confirmed by the Prophet was replaced by this complex Roman system.(42) Omar was able to push his scheme through by referring to the Qur'an,(43) and the result was that private ownership of land was subordinated to state ownership. It should be noted here that these two different land distribution systems applied by the Prophet and Omar the second caliph were both based upon the Qur'an, the former on 8: 41 and the latter, 59. 7. Omar was able to alter the Prophet's system by both referring to the Qur'an and by consultation.(44)
The next divergence from pure Islamic capitalism of the Prophet was introduced by the famous jurist Ibn Taymiyyah during the late thirteenth to early fourteenth century. This was the concept of 'fair prices'. Ibn Taymiyyah asked what price would be the fairest price, and concluded that it is the price practised by the majority of the merchants in the market. Ibn Taymiyyah even advised how in practice this price could be found. He suggested two procedures.(45)
Once again, these procedures represent a deviation from the sunnah of the Prophet, who refused to interfere with prices. This is because both of these alternatives actually involve, however 'fair', a process of price fixing by an authority. Moreover, the second procedure also introduces inadvertently the concept of 'fair profit'. 'Fair profit' suggests that any rate of profit that exceeds it is actually unfair, unjust - something to be avoided or ashamed of. Yet, a combination of 'fair prices' and 'fair profits' powerfully impedes entrepreneurship. With 'fair prices' prevalent in the market, the entrepreneur no longer tries to minimize his prices and with 'fair profits, he loses interest in cost minimization and revenue maximization.
Another deviation from pure classical Islamic capitalism concerns taxation. It is well known that when the Prophet established the Madinah bazaar he had declared that no taxes were going to be imposed on transactions conducted in that market.(46) Thus the sunnah of the Prophet suggests clearly that an Islamic state should abolish taxes in order to encourage trade or that the tax burden should be relatively light.(47) In this context, particularly the abolition of the internal customs by the Prophet can be mentioned.(48) These taxes used to be imposed in pre-Islamic Arabia on all imports as well as commercial transactions at the rate of one-tenth. Obviously, with the abolition the Prophet must have aimed at enhancing trade within the realm of Islam. Taxes on foreign trade, however, were not abolished. This was because of reciprocity - Muslim merchants were taxed when they went to trade to non-Muslim countries. So, when non-Muslim merchants from Europe visited the lands of Islam, they had to pay the same rates. Muslim as well as local non-Muslim merchants, zimmis, involved in external trade, appear to have been exempted from export taxation. These merchants, initially, were only liable to pay their zakat and jizya respectively.(49) During the reign of Omar the second Caliph, a more concrete system was established: Europeans were to pay customs duty at the rate at which they charge Muslims in Europe, i.e., full reciprocity, usually 10 per cent; local non-Muslims, zimmis were to pay 5 per cent and Muslims only 2.5 per cent, which was of course, the zakat.
It is well known that in the following centuries nearly all Islamic states violated these early traditions and began to impose heavier taxation on trade. With the Mamluk rule in Egypt, further deviations from classical Islamic capitalism took place. When the Mamluk Sultan Baybars introduced trade monopolies in 1432, the state monopolized the pepper and spice trade along the Red Sea. This was the end of the famous Karimi merchants, who had dominated this trade ever since the thirteenth century. The rebirth of the Egyptian mercantile class had to wait until the Ottoman conquest, which peripheralized Egypt. Becoming periphery of a huge empire meant that state control came to be diluted, which gave Egyptian merchants and craftsmen a breathing space to flourish.(50) The same, however, cannot be said for the merchants of the Ottoman heartlands. In those regions, the mercantile class was subjected to the 'Ottoman proto-quasi-socialism' and could not flourish. Consequently, Arab merchants from Syria, which was too near to the Ottoman heartlands for comfort, appear to have consistently emigrated to Egypt. From the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, there was a substantial Syrian merchant community in Egypt.(51)
Recent research by Gad Gilbar, who showed that major Muslim merchant families were observed primarily in the Eastern and the Southern parts of the Middle East, i.e., the periphery of the Ottoman empire, rather than in its Western and Northern parts, has provided powerful support to this argument.(52) Gilbar has observed such powerful merchants in Iran as well. This is not surprising in view of the fact that the Iranian state did not actively interfere in mercantile activities and pursued a decentralized economic policy. Unlike the Ottoman economy, the Iranian economy was left to the private sector, governments were happy to collect taxes and leave the bazaars alone. Even when a national central government was formed, the economy was left alone other than major public works undertaken by the government. Indeed, the full notion of a centrally designed and implemented national economic policy framework came into being in Iran only in the 1950s.(53)
Thus the Ottoman economic doctrine constitutes probably the most radical divergence from the classical Islamic capitalism. This doctrine has been called proto-quasi-Ottoman socialism'.(54) 'Proto' because it antedates Marxism by several centuries and 'quasi' because, it was not based upon the Marxian class conflict but on the preservation of social harmony. In any case, albeit possible theoretical differences, the Ottoman system functioned in reality by and large akin to the modern socialism as we know it.(55) This is attested by the fact that the Ottoman state firmly controlled all the basic factors of production and physical capital, possessed nearly all mines and metallurgical establishments, and exerted a firm control over factor prices and mercantile profits - in short, it effectively controlled and dominated the economy.(56) This is clearly a major divergence from the classical Islamic capitalism of the first two centuries of Islam.
As the political economy of the Islamic empires evolved from the classical Islamic capitalism towards greater state control and gradually culminated in the proto-quasi-Ottoman socialism, financial institutions also evolved to respond to the changing needs.
Notwithstanding its divergence from the classical doctrine, the Ottoman experience is still important because it is the most important source with rich archival evidence informing us how a major Islamic state functioned in reality.(57) Moreover, Ottomans succeeded in establishing a powerful state, which could protect a large part of the Islamic world for centuries. It was also able, by and large, to eliminate poverty.(58)
On the negative side, it insisted on embracing its time-tested doctrine and failed to respond to the rise of modern Westem capitalism. Thus, it has the dubious honour of succumbing to Western capitalism first, even before Soviet socialism. The demise of the Ottoman Empire was followed by colonization of the bulk of the Islamic world. This was followed by the abolition of the Caliphate, replacement of the Shari'ah by the French or British civil or common laws and the dismantlement of waqfs by the modernists. In short, all the Islamic countries, even those who could maintain their independence, were exposed to powerful Western influence. Things began to change only after the Second World War, when the Islamic world regained its independence. Attempts to recover the lost heritage began in earnest soon after. Emergence of modern Islamic finance, as the heart of modern Islamic capitalism, should be viewed within this historical framework.
Exposed for far too long to the debilitating effects of proto-quasi-socialism, it is high time that the Islamic world rediscovers its original capitalism established by the Prophet himself. One of the purposes of this book is to do precisely that.
Thus, modem Islamic finance is built upon three sets of institutions: classical Islamic capitalism and the institutions it has created; Western capitalism (pre- and post-Enlightenment) and the institutions that emerged out of them; and finally the Ottoman proto-quasi-socialism and its institutions. We will focus primarily on the two Islamic systems and their institutions and refer to the Western institutions only selectively and by way of comparison.
Currently, modern Western (conventional) finance is having a huge impact on Islamic finance. So much so that conventionalization appears to have emerged as the greatest danger to modem Islamic finance. If it is conventionalized, Islamic finance will become a mere imitation of Western finance and will fail to contribute to the birth of modern Islamic capitalism as an alternative economic system. To the extent that an observation made by Prof. Zubair Hasan can be generalized, jurists sitting on the Shari'ah boards of Islamic banks share much of the blame. One such jurist who sits on the boards of two banks admitted that they inevitably avoid initiating new products. Instead, they prefer to ask bank managers the details of the conventional product for which they need an Islamic counterpart: for 'it is much easier' this jurist said, 'to put on it the Islamic face than to structure an entirely new one.'(59)
Danger of conventionalization, with even more serious implications, is not limited to finance alone but is relevant for Islamic economics as well. With the expulsion of moral Church-imposed controls, Western capitalism ended up relying on state imposed external controls.(60) The expulsion of moral controls was followed by the entire Western economic thought being focused upon the imaginary and supposedly rational, profit-maximizing homo-economicus. Conventional economics then attempted to discover how this fictitious being would behave.
Recently, with Kahneman receiving the 2002 Nobel Prize in economics, economic theory began to borrow from psychology and behavioural economics and started to move the latter to the mainstream. Kahneman challenged the standard economic theory that everybody acts like the homo-economicus and is a rational, calculating profit maximizer. He showed that psychological motives determine people's behaviour and that these motives are important for economic phenomena. The main paradigm here is the discovery of the laws, which govern actual human economic behaviour. It is believed that failure to understand these laws has caused the present crisis.
With respect to the above, Islamic economics has a huge advantage: Islam not being burdened by a powerful, centralized and an incorporated Church and its oppressive institutions, particularly the Inquisition, did not need an Enlightenment. Thus, moral controls imposed by the original sources of Islam were never discarded. The world of homo-Islamicus, which comprises about one-fourth of humanity, is still governed by an inbuilt auto control system spelled out in the classical sources of Islam. There is therefore no need to discover the laws that govern this Islamic capitalism. These have been laid down about 1400 years ago and are well known.
More specifically, rules that govern market participants, producers, traders and consumers alike are determined outside the market. They are internalized by participants before entering the market. These laws are clearly stated in the Qur'an, hadith and sunnah. Rules such as no waste, no overconsumption, no harm or injury, faithfulness to contracts as well as trustworthiness, no fraud, no cheating, no short-changing of weights and measures, no interfering with the flow of supplies, no hoarding of commodities or money are general rules of behaviour that are internalized by Muslim consumers, producers and traders. These rules permit free and unrestricted interplay of demand and supply.(61)
Thus, the field of behavioural economics, for Muslims, boils down to the study of the relationship between the ancient code of life provided by the Shari'ah and the actual economic behaviour of Muslims. Conventionalization, to the extent that Islamic economists borrow laws and concepts from Western economics, has the implicit danger that the laws developed for the homo economicus are being super-imposed on the homo-Islamicus.
The code of life as embodied in the Qur'an and the Prophetic traditions was actually translated into daily economic life through institutions. What economic and financial institutions emerged out of this code of life and how they evolved over the centuries is the main subject of this book. By focusing on institutions - past and present - this book tries to shed light on the economic behaviour of Muslims determined not only by the ancient code but also by modern institutions.
We will start our inquiry with the basic principles of classical Islamic economy or capitalism and the financial institutions that developed from these principles. Throughout the book, I will try, whenever possible, to explain each major economic or financial institution by first providing its historical origins, then its evolution and then, finally, its present. Since I consider history, present and future as inseparable parts of the same continuum, in Part V some thoughts on the future of Islamic capitalism and finance will also be provided.
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2019.08.29 22:19 stroke_bot borates chokecherry nonimpacted choleic brilliantined seminarrative zyrenian

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2019.08.23 05:19 stroke_bot cathop skimmer

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2019.06.14 00:09 stroke_bot micrurgic quintans talepyet polypage abrasives provisorship courtesied bedismal

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2019.05.12 17:03 stroke_bot offshoot tuskar

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2019.04.18 04:27 stroke_bot haltere wasat malmstone premeridian cents oreodon

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2018.05.25 23:02 fgsgeneg Friday Night Music -- 05/25/18

Tonight I'm going to do something a bit different here. I'm going to give a little history of my love affair with the man who I consider the greatest song writer and poet of our day: Bob Dylan. The occasion for this encomium is his seventy-seventh birthday yesterday. When I was in high school back in the early sixties I was into rock n roll and folk music, not an unusual combination in those years. They both had themes of rebellion and standing up to the unfairness of the world. At the time the Kingston Trio was very popular. They played a kind of white-washed folksy, well crafted folk blues, spearheaded by such popular songs as Tom Dooley, The M.T.A., the Tijauana Jail, and a grab bag of other songs in the folk genre. They were soon joined by a manufactured group of two men and a woman, Peter, Paul, and Mary. PP&M sang songs that were more politically topical at the time. They were a tremendous influence on the folk scene and their manager, Albert Grossman was looking for songs the group could popularize. He had recently become the manager of a young twentysomething who called himself Bob Dylan and whose real name was Robert Zimmerman. His friends referred to him as Zimmie. He had just arrived in New York on a pilgrimmage to visit his dying hero, Woody Guthrie, a prominent, well known folk singer who had written such popular songs as Hard Travellin' and This land Is Your land. Dylan stayed in New York and became a fixture in the coffee house/club scene in the city singing mostly covers of the kind of folk music we weren't hearing from the commercial groups and his popularity began to spread locally. He produced an eponymously titled album of folk covers and the occasional original talking blues. Sometime during this period he wrote several original songs. He signed on with Albert Grossman's management company and played some of his songs for him. Grossman took a protest song Dylan had written, Blowin' in the Wind, and gave it to his established act to popularize. It became a smashing success for PP&M who quickly followed it up with another Dylan creation, Don't Think Twice. My mother had a subscription to time magazine and in one of them there was a story about the rise of PP&M that mentioned their two most current hits had been written by a fellow named Bob Dylan. At that moment I set myself the goal of getting some of his music. By this time he released a second album, Freewheelin', which had both of PP&M's big hits on it so that's the one I bought. I was on a vacation trip to visit an aunt and uncle in DC, it was not available in the small town I was in in North Carolina at the time. It was summer, 1963. The first time I heard it I was sold. The fellow couldn't sing worth a damn, but the power of his music was overwhelming. I took the album home and played it for my friends in small town NC and everyone was crazy about it. The following spring I was in DC again and my aunt and uncle, who were always looking out for me, arranged a blind date to see Joan Baez, another big name in the folk music world, play a concert in a theatre in the round in Owings Mills, Md. We arrived well before the start time for the concert and were wandering around the grounds when we walked past a trailer with a skinny kid with unkempt longish hair standing in the doorway. Someone from inside the trailer called out, "Bobby" and the guy turned away from the door and went into the trailer. This was the first time I ever saw the man who would dominate my musical life for the next four years, and, indeed, off and on for the rest of my life. He played four songs that night as Joan's guest and I was ecstatic. It would be almost ten years before I saw him again, this time with the Band. Over the next two years he produced six albums, all of which were masterpieces. Between 1964 and 1965 he transitioned from a singer songwriter doing mostly ballads and blues to a full fledged electric act backed by well known blues musicians like Mike Bloomfield and Al Cooper. Switching to electric instruments and a band caused quite a stir among the folk purists, but I thought the switch was pure magic. While the Beatles were singing A Hard Days Night, Eight Days a Week and other light popish hits, he was singing about Maggie's Farm and other enigmatic songs that spoke to the soul. During this time he recorded two basic singer songwriter albums, The Times They Are a Changing and Another Side of Bob Dylan, and the three albums that are my personal Mt. Rushmore of music created during my life time, all electric, Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, and Blonde on Blonde. Then he was nearly killed in a motorcycle accident and went into hiding for a couple of years. I kind of lost track for a few years as life started getting in the way and I didn't pay much attention to him after that. I did see him in concert with the Band, but that was about it for the next forty years. He produced album after album, year after year, reinvented himself every so often, me getting further and further away until about ten years ago when my wife discovered him. She had never cared for him before, but when she began listening to him she, too, fell in love with the music. She reintroduced me to what he had been doing all those years since the motorcycle accident and my love affair with his awesome music was rekindled. We listen to his music regularly these days. We both saw him in Birmingham, Alabama in November of 2016 and he was great. I like to think he and I, to a certain extent grew up together. Two years ago, to much controversy, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. At the time he said all he wanted to do was make his songs rhyme. Wow. What an understatement. I think he more than deserves the Nobel. In five hundred years his name will be as well known as William Shakespeare's is today and he will be studied just like Shakespeare is today. One of the most fortunate aspects of my life is to have lived in the time of Bob Dylan.
Now, how about some musc?
For some reason the Dylan version of this song is not available on YouTube, but this one will do just fine. I apologize if I've done this one before.
Copper Kettle.
Once again, Dylan's studio work, but for a few pieces, is not available on YouTube. However, I found this version of what, at any point in time, is one of a half dozen or so songs that comprise my favorite Dylan song. This is a live version played pretty straight, so here it goes
Desolation Row
Now, this evenings dance song. This is one of my favorite Elvis songs. This is definitely good Elvis. Grab your honey, kick off your shoes, roll back the rug, hold your baby tight and dance.
I Was the One
That's our musical program for this evening. I hope you've enjoyed it.
Tonight's Supper -- Habanero's Taqueria -- Our favorite Tex-Mex joint. Best tacos in town.
Tonight's Sipper -- Old Forester 1920 Prohibition Style -- this is one of my favorite bourbons. I bought this bottle yesterday. I'm excited to crack it open tonight. I haven't had this in a while.
That's the program for tonight. I hope you enjoyed it.
It's another holiday weekend, the unofficial start of summer. School's out here and probably in other places, too. Graduation parties abound which mean rookies on the road so once again, be careful. Keep you head on a swivel, Don't let road rage get to you. If someone wants to force an issue on the road, let them. There's nothing to be gained by arguing. Spread light and joy wherever you are. Be the grownup in the room. Remembe, pissy little children come in all shapes and sizes, as well as all ages, don't let them under your skin. Just ignore them. They hate being ignored. Have a great weekend.
Next week. Same time, same sub. Be blessed.
submitted by fgsgeneg to bourbon [link] [comments]

2017.12.11 04:24 ClearBackblast The Fifthtiest Anniversary Looms! CBB, your 2018 Shindig details are here!

Basically I had a new idea for a shindig thing. Kind of different than anything we've done before. But not in a strange "oh no, people won't understand this" kind of way.
  • Zim, after inventing 'Zim's Instant Hardcore Full-Realism Shindig Experience, made with Zim's Hand-Squeezed Manshoot Extract and Zim's Juicy Farm-Raised Clear Backblast, mixed just like Grandma Zim used to, and filmed in Spectacular Zimovision with Narration by 8 Time Zimmy Award Winner Zim'
Anniversary Shindig 2018, The Fifthtiest Shindig, The Wooden Silverware Novelty AT-4 Anniversary will commence on January 13, 2018! Click that link to find out when it happens in your local time, you won't want to miss any of it.
We have an exciting schedule of events planned for the whole da- afternoon, and we can't wait to start the celebration! Sign-ups for this special event will go up on or around January 1 so you can all fight over who gets which slots in two weeks. (We will of course be accepting bribes for the one sniper slot, submit your competing bids via the usual criminal networks.)
If you haven't done a Shindig with us before, here's what you need to know:
Shindig is our big celebration, commemorating all the wonderful things this community stands for and all of you wonderful people who call it home. As such, it is our Big Thing and we absolutely want it to be special for all of you, and something particularly and uniquely CBB, for whatever that means. The sessions run considerably longer than a usual Saturday, plan for 5 hours, though more is entirely possible.
We do hope you'll make plans to stay for the whole thing too: most Shindig content is only ever run once and then never seen again. So, yeah, you don't want to miss it!
More details will be available as we get closer to the date, but thanks to the attendance survey we know that January 13 is far and away the best date for the most people, and now you know it too!
January 13, the usual time plus some hours, mark your schedules, fill your assault packs, and clear your backblasts, because Shindig is just around the corner!
submitted by ClearBackblast to ClearBackblast [link] [comments]

2017.12.11 00:08 Ironystrike The Fifthtiest Anniversary Looms! CBB, your 2018 Shindig details are here!

Basically I had a new idea for a shindig thing. Kind of different than anything we've done before. But not in a strange "oh no, people won't understand this" kind of way.
  • Zim, after inventing 'Zim's Instant Hardcore Full-Realism Shindig Experience, made with Zim's Hand-Squeezed Manshoot Extract and Zim's Juicy Farm-Raised Clear Backblast, mixed just like Grandma Zim used to, and filmed in Spectacular Zimovision with Narration by 8 Time Zimmy Award Winner Zim'
Anniversary Shindig 2018, The Fifthtiest Shindig, The Wooden Silverware Novelty AT-4 Anniversary will commence on January 13, 2018! Click that link to find out when it happens in your local time, you won't want to miss any of it.
We have an exciting schedule of events planned for the whole da- afternoon, and we can't wait to start the celebration! Sign-ups for this special event will go up on or around January 1 so you can all fight over who gets which slots in for two weeks. (We will of course be accepting bribes for the one sniper slot, submit your competing bids via the usual criminal networks.)
If you haven't done a Shindig with us before, here's what you need to know:
Shindig is our big celebration, commemorating all the wonderful things this community stands for and all of you wonderful people who call it home. As such, it is our Big Thing and we absolutely want it to be special for all of you, and something particularly and uniquely CBB, for whatever that means. The sessions run considerably longer than a usual Saturday, expect 5 hours, more is entirely possible.
We do hope you'll make plans to stay for the whole thing too: most Shindig content is only ever run once and then never seen again. So, yeah, you don't want to miss it!
More details will be available as we get closer to the date, but thanks to the attendance survey we know that January 13 is far and away the best date for the most people, and now you know it too!
January 13, the usual time plus some hours, mark your schedules, fill your assault packs, and clear your backblasts, because Shindig is just around the corner!
submitted by Ironystrike to Backblast [link] [comments]

2017.09.08 21:37 zimmimaru Destiny 2 is here! Now that clan functionality is up and running Fuzzbutt Guardians is looking for more members!

Hey there furries, scalies, and everything in-between. I'm Zimmy, the leader of the Furry Oriented PS4 Destiny Clan, Fuzzbutt Guardians. With Destiny 2 right around the corner, I want to try and get some more members. Due to the gap in time between Rise of Iron and D2 a lot of members have left or lost interest.
Anyway! Clans are now integrated into the game via clan seasons. Each season a clan can level up by doing content together. When the clan levels up it unlocks loot and perks for every member (whether you helped or not). So come help us help you! I have also created a Discord for the Clan for communication outside of PSN.
As Clan Leader I plan on organizing events and keeping the clan constantly up to date on either Destiny 2 updates/news and/or Clan news or announcements. After a week or two and we have a decent amount of people ready to tackle the raid I will also begin to plan and schedule a raid group or groups (if necessary) So that everyone gets a chance at loot.
Important Notes
How to Join
If you're interested in joining you have two options.
Once you contact me I will provide the link to the discord as well as the Clan Page.
Well that seems to be everything. If you're joining, I cant wait to play with you! If you aren't joining and decided to read this out of boredom or just cause, please tell a friend who may be interested!
submitted by zimmimaru to furry [link] [comments]

2017.08.25 07:36 zimmimaru [PS4][PvE Mostly] Fuzzbutt Guardians is looking to replenish its ranks in preparation for Destiny 2!

[PS4][PvE Mostly] Fuzzbutt Guardians is looking to replenish its ranks in preparation for Destiny 2!
Hey there, I'm Zimmy, the leader of the Furry Oriented PS4 Destiny Clan, Fuzzbutt Guardians. With Destiny 2 right around the corner, I want to try and get some more members. Due to the gap in time between Rise of Iron and D2 a lot of members have left or lost interest.
Anyway! I have already made the necessary changes to make sure the clan is moved forward into Destiny 2, including make a clan banner, due to clans being a more integrated and important part of the game. I have also created a Discord for the Clan for communication outside of PSN.
As Clan Leader I plan on organizing events and keeping the clan constantly up to date on either Destiny 2 updates/news and/or Clan news or announcements. After a week or two and we have a decent amount of people ready to tackle the raid I will also begin to plan and schedule a raid group or groups (if necessary) So that everyone gets a chance at loot.
Important Notes
How to Join
If you're interested in joining you have two options.
Once you contact me I will provide the link to the discord as well as the Clan Page.
Well that seems to be everything. If you're joining, I cant wait to play with you September 6th! If you aren't joining and decided to read this out of boredom or just cause, please tell a friend who may be interested!
submitted by zimmimaru to Fireteams [link] [comments]

2016.10.28 04:50 FlyingShisno I started a re-read yesterday, and I have a question.

Actually, I've been wanting to ask this for quite a while, but Antimony has a dislike of Eglamore(edit: At least during Chapter 1-24), why is that? I mean, I have a few guesses, but is there any particular reason. I'm currently on the Residential chapter.
A side question. Does Antimony have a thing for Ms. Jones? Kinda popped into my mind when I was just thinkin' about the chapter Zimmy helps out when Antimony went coma after using the Microstat 5.
Final question. Should I be using spoiler markings? This community feels like it's mostly made up of people who are up to date. But I doubt that's entirely true. At the very least, most discussion is about a current chapter page, so it's to avoid spoilers.
submitted by FlyingShisno to gunnerkrigg [link] [comments]

2016.06.03 13:37 okrammus May 2016 Korean Releases Compilation

Extremely Busy this week so got lazy with genre-ing - If anyone wants to help me with the lists head over to the google doc and request access: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1T5s1fnvRJ7yF3fOldaSn0WUYJkSNE2QA494T4SRJRtQ/edit?pref=2&pli=1#gid=1386699093
prev months Jan Feb Mar Apr
Mainstream (you can click on the headers to sort - just by date atm)
Artist Song Album Genre Date
Kim Wan Sun X Pinky Cheeks Use me (ft. VIXX Ravi) Dance 160501
Nine Muses: Hyuna & Hyemi Confession Confession Ballad 160501
SHINyan (SHINee) 君のせいで for cat Cat Pop 160501
BTS Fire The Most Beautiful Moment In Life: Young Forever Trap Hiphop 160502
Jeong Yeongdo Say I Love U (ft. Dalshabet: Woohee) Pop Love Song 160502
Kei G Right Here Soul Ballad 160502
Lucia INNER Power of softness (Live Vol. 1) Rock Soul Ballad 160502
Lucia My color Power of softness (Live Vol. 1) Ballad 160502
Red Velvet Yossism Telemonster OST Pop 160502
SOL-T Curveball Curveball Trap Pop 160502
SURAN To Your Dream Tantara (딴따라) OST Part.2 Acoustic Pop 160502
TK Local Market (Feat. 로꼬 & 수란) Tourist Hiphop 160502
Chancellor Rodeo (Feat. Paloalto) RnB 160503
MIXX Oh Ma Mind Oh Ma Mind (*Debut) RnB 160503
ZE:A: Dongjun Healing Healing RnB Acoustic 160503
Akdong Musician Re-Bye Spring Vol. 1 Jazz Funk 160504
Akdong Musician How People Move Spring Vol. 1 Pop 160504
CHAE_A HAN 100M Before I Meet Him A Week of Romance Season 3 OST Pop 160504
Crucial Star 힘 (Feat. 한해, 브라더수) 160504
Geeks: Louie Mama (ft. ENAN) Hiphop 160504
Han Seo Yoon A stray child Tantara (딴따라) OST Part.3 Ballad 160504
I.O.I Dream Girls Chrysalis Bright Pop 160504
Park Myung Ho BED ROOM (feat. GARY, DIGIRI, Sung-tae of Postmen) Hiphop 160504
PARK SI YEON Thought of You A Week of Romance Season 3 OST Ballad 160504
PARK SI YEON & CHAE_A HAN Festival (Life Is Beautiful) A Week of Romance Season 3 OST Pop 160504
REDSUN Hot Baby Hot Baby Electronic 160504
SUNGEUN KIM Perfect Man A Week of Romance Season 3 OST Pop 160504
이안 (김석구) By My Side 160504
BEENZINO Bee Strong (ft. BYG & Cathy) Hiphop 160505
CNBLUE: Kang Min Hyuk I see you Tantara (딴따라) OST Part.4 Rock Pop Ballad 160505
Crush 9 to 5 (ft. Gaeko) 160505
Crush woo ah 160505
WINNER JTBC 반달친구 '지난 날' Hiphop Pop 160505
f(x): Amber & Luna, R3hab, Xavi & Gi Wave SM Station EDM 160506
Kim Jeong-hoon Marry Me, Marry You (ft. Rainbow: Hyunyoung) Pop Love Song 160506
Stephanie (The Grace) Tommorow 160506
As One Hey Ya (Korean version) Non official kor mv link 160508
I.C.E 내가 아까워 Electronic Dance 160508
ASUEL LOVELESS New Pop Electronic Alternative 160509
Icia Time Bomb Electronic Dance 160509
Woohyun (INFINITE) Nodding [끄덕끄덕] Write 160509
Hello Venus Glow Glow Pop Ballad 160510
Kwak JIN EON Go With Me Soft Rock Ballad 160510
리애 (우진희) 망가진 얼굴 Ballad 160510
Tiffany (Girls' Generation) I Just Wanna Dance I Just Wanna Dance Retro Funk Pop 160511
ZIA FAREWELL RIDDEN Color Series Part.2 BLUE Ballad 160511
Dal Shabet: Subin Flower Ballad 160512
G.Soul Far, far away Far, far away Reggae 160512
G.Soul Where do We Go From Here Far, far away RnB Alternative 160512
Gaeko Send me your pictures Tantara(딴따라) OST Part.5 Hiphop pop 160512
BgA Dong Saya Dae Trap Pop 160513
EXO: Baekhyun & K.Will The Day SM Station Ballad 160513
Live High Happy Song Bright Electronic Pop 160512
AOA Good Luck Good Luck 160516
BTS Save Me The Most Beautiful Moment In Life: Young Forever 160516
San E Like An Airplane (ft. GARY) 160516
Jessica Jung Fly Fly with Jessica 160517
f(x): Amber On My Own (ft. Gen Neo) (KOR Ver.) 160518
f(x): Amber On My Own (ft. Gen Neo) (ENG Ver.) 160518
Jessica Jung LOVE ME THE SAME Fly with Jessica 160518
Monsta X All In The Clan Part 1: Lost Dance 160518
Miryo (Brown Eyed Girls), JuRa, Lee Sang Gon, Noel & No.11 Climax 160518
New-A SOLDIER 160518
Agirls UHOO UHOO 160519
Apink: Eunji A Love Before Tantara(딴따라) OST Part.6 160519
HEYNE Love Cells 160519
Parc Jae Jung Two Men (with Kyuhyun) 160519
She'z: Jiyoung O stop Time 160519
AFOS Turn It Up 160520
DANA Touch You SM Station Pop Soul Ballad 160520
RoadBoyz Shake It, Shake It 160520
M.I.B: SIMS 24/7. 160523
ROMEO Nightmare 160523
Baek A Yeon so so 160524
MAP6 Swagger Time 160524
SHINee: JongHyun She Is She Is 160524
TAHITI 타히티 티저 2차 공개 160524
f(x): Amber Need to Feel Needed 160525
Park Kyung Inferiority Complex (ft. GFRIEND: Eunha) 160525
BOYFRIEND To my bestfriend 160526
OH MY GIRL WINDY DAY Windy day (Pink Ocean Repackage) 160526
Beenzino Life In Color Hiphop 160527
EXO: Lay Monodrama SM Station 160527
Sik-K ALCOHOL (ft. Jay Park) 160527
SKULL Get RIch Reggae 160527
Yong Jong Shin & VIXX: Ken Oversleep 160527
CLC No Oh Oh NU.CLEAR 160530
f(x): Luna FREE SOMEBODY FREE SOMEBODY Retro Electropop Dance 160531
FIESTAR Apple Pie 160531
CROSS GENE: Seyoung Without You 마녀의 성 OST Part.19 Ballad 160513
Jessica Jung Fly (English Version) With Love, J 160528
The Quiett Night Flight 160531
GIRIBOY I'M IN TROUBLE (ft. Loco) 160531
The Quiett Your World Hiphop 160531
Block B Toy (Japanese Version) Hiphop 160531
Artist Song Album Genre Date
Lee Woo No Incoming Number Liason Instrumental Alternative 160501
Mellowrian My Universe Acoustic Pop 160502
YJD Highway Related Search Pop Hiphop 160502
add2 Mother Ballad 160503
Afron 동기화 (Feat. 송희란) RnB 160503
Dust Out Dust Out Rock 160503
J Rabbit Just Fon't Fall Down Growing Everyday Acoustic Folk 160503
J Rabbit Growing Everyday Growing Everyday Acoustic Folk 160503
J Rabbit The Spring Song Growing Everyday Acoustic Folk 160503
Kim Changhoon Mother Mother Rock 160503
LUNE JUST U Just Smile RnB 160503
Monday Kiz 그대 품에 Reboot Ballad 160503
Monday Kiz 그대가 불어와 Reboot Ballad 160503
TAMYOCK HeuRul Ryu (Feat. 안태연) Hiphop Acoustic 160503
싱글 Way Back Home RnB 160503
Bling [ Now ]( ) 이젠 Dance 160504
DAYHOUR [ Dayhour (ft. Choe Yoo Jin) ]( ) DAYH:OUR Hophop 160504
Detempo 밥은 잘 먹고다녀요 밥은 잘 먹고다녀요 Hiphop Ballad 160504
DK Soul 모두가 손을 모아 기다려 모두가 손을 모아 기다려 Ballad 160504
Hanalog Tempo Midnight Blues Midnight Blues Ballad 160504
Hi.Ni The Bed is The Furniture (ft. Man Soo) The Bed is The Furniture Hiphop 160504
JAMA CREW Again With Jhiffy (ft. Taerrier) Again (With Jhiffy) Hiphop 160504
Je.Mic [ Don't Be Happy (ft. 미랑) ]( ) 행복하지마 Hiphop 160504
Jung Song-i 이토록 난 The Ballader Vol.1 Ballad 160504
Kim Ban Jang Boat Journey Boat Journey RnB 160504
Lee Hyeong Eun 바람이 좀 덜 차갑네 RnB 160504
Melloano Regret Piano (Instrumental) 160504
Moonshine 외로워서그래 (Feat. 넉살) RnB 160504
Namchon Essay Lullaby(ft. Ppommeu) 남촌수필 Ballad 160504
Nudyman Tell Me Tell Me RnB 160504
Pascol Wish You'd Benefit From Me Wish You'd Benefit From Me RnB 160504
Premen [ 24 ]( ) 24 RnB 160504
Sapo910 Wind And Sonata 바람, 그리고 연가 Ballad Folk 160504
seo sae hee I Wish Acoustic Ballad 160504
THE ELECTRICEELS Farewell Moment Fluke Rock 160504
Tshirts band All of my days (ft. 임채운) Acoustic Soul Ballad 160504
TwoJ Hard Feelings 응어리 Hiphop 160504
Yoni Father 아버지 Ballad 160504
Zick Jasper PRIMETIME (Feat. 지구인) Hiphop 160504
Zimmy & Ji Ho [ Beautiful Hour ]( ) Beautiful Hour Hiphop 160504
디케이소울 모두가 손을 모아 기다려 Ballad 160504
로코베리 I.O.U Ballad 160504
진지소년과 홍대요정 성공확률 0% Rock 160504
JONEY I don't know why Pop Funk Hiphop 160506
LUNE 웃어봐요 (feat. Unlimit, Vinegar) Just Smile RnB Hiphop 160506
Merry Sweet Cafe Merry Sweet Cafe Merry Sweet Cafe Acoustic Pop 160506
Phonebooth MAI 2016 MAI 2016 Rock 160506
Princess Disease Strawberry Macaron Strawberry Macaron Acoustic Pop 160506
Self Acoustic Sushi Song Pop Folk 160506
SunKyum Mom Mom Folk 160506
UNUSED Mine RnB 160506
김윤중 헛헛하다 - 봄 어색한 소년 이야기 Ballad 160506
조한성 Moon Ballad 160506
주윤하 에필로그 Kind Ballad 160506
Backward Ridin' (ft. Blasti) Hiphop 160509
Oh Heejung Freckles Freckles Alternative 160509
u-sia and sister and brother Whatever Jazz Folk 160509
살두와 마흥이 쿵하고 짝 Acoustic 160509
조유마 뽕찌뽕짝 느리게 걷다 Rock Funk 160509
조유마 뽕찌뽕짝 느리게 걷다 Funk 160509
Uhnee Twinkling Gaze Folk 160510
XEHO Love Love Love RnB Ballad 160510
송하예 내일이 찾아오면 (feat.김남훈) 좋은 사람 OST Part.2 Bright Pop 160510
406 Project Love Squabble Acoustic Pop 160511
Jeon Ji-young 2.AM Ballad 160511
Jeon Sung Mee Dream of dream Bright Pop 160511
Mystery House Daily Party Electro Rock 160511
Theatre8 The First Day of Love Rock 160511
반광옥 My All Soul Ballad 160511
유하민 시간 속의 나 레코닝 OST (네이버 웹툰) Soft Rock Ballad 160511
정환호 안녕, 하루 Piano (Instrumental) 160511
Aurorasting, MET Rose Petal Folk Ballad 160512
Hui Young Jeong First Spring Folk Ballad 160512
Jaek Ass 설거지 송 (feat.김지혜 of 헤이즈블루) JAEK ASS 테마송 라이브러리 VOL. 1 Folk 160512
Kim Chang Ki We have to go together Rock 160512
Piano Logic Whisper of Wind Piano (Instrumental) 160512
배짱이들 Not too late (feat.송형준,강백수,이인세,최휘찬) 배짱이들 OST Acoustic 160512
A'Zbus I Know I Know Rock Jazz 160513
Beck Junghyun Tarabi Jeju, Music Of The Forest Piano (Instrumental) 160513
Beck Junghyun Wind Jeju, Music Of The Forest Piano (Instrumental) 160513
Bless You Live A Day Soul Ballad 160513
Kwon KiHo build-up of love Acoustic Rock 160513
LIWON UZOO Chill Funk Pop 160513
MINYOKEY [ Sleepyhead ]( ) MINYOKEY S/S season 1 160513
MINYOKEY Sleepyhead MINYOKEY S/S season 1 Pop 160513
Self Acoustic Southern red pepper on a blind date Acoustic Folk 160513
WEEP Dreams Lonely Communication Ambient Melanchony (Instrumental) 160513
마로니에 프렌즈 파라솔에서 아침을 마로니에 프렌즈 시즌 4 Funk Acoustic 160513
NoLzA Jump Hiphop 160515
Litmus Come back to me Ballad 160516
OUI about YOU Acoustic Bright 160516
The Nuts Good Love Bright Pop 좋은 사람 OST Part.3 160516
Today's Piano Our cat Piano (Instrumental) 160516
X-Project 사랑을 믿지 말아요 (feat.정수화) 사랑을 믿지 말아요 RnB Acoustic 160516
민세영 어쩌죠 사랑하나봐 다시 시작해 OST Part.1 Bright Upbeat Pop 160516
안슬희 잠이 오질 않아 잠이 오질 않아 Acoustic 160516
Achtung Hypnosis Acoustic Folk 160517
Flower Kim The Song That I Want To Give You Soul Ballad 160517
Flower Kim Missing U The Flower of May Pop 160517
TNI 거절 거절 Soul Ballad 160517
김정은 너 없는 하루 너 없는 하루 Pop RnB Ballad 160517
태리,킥솔,Dino.T 곤두세워 (prod. by SU5KID) 곤두세워 Hiphop Trap 160517
PS영준 Burn Burn Hiphop 160518
SALTNPAPER 오 달아라 (feat. 김이지 of 꽃잠프로젝트) Soft Rock 160518
soggupnori A swan song Folk 160518
Yun Soll Sometimes I miss you (ft. CROQ) Jazz RnB Hiphop 160518
Boas Kim Depths of my spirit Synthpop Ballad 160519
HarryBigButtion, Garion Make My Day Snowball Project vol.1 Garage Rock Hiphop 160519
The Daisy 바라보지마 마녀의 성 OST Part.20 Ballad 160519
Yup Kim Dance In The Air Shimmering in The Moonlight Jazz Funk 160519
문빛 토요일 토요일 Acoustic 160519
Maktub 어떤 고백 (With 전상근) 어떤 고백 Ballad 160520
Song Eyn Seok Same Electropop Synth 160520
박서우 기적 기적 Funk 160520
Ahn Jun hyun Why did i Soul Acoustic Ballad 160523
Chi Won Peter & Prince Acoustic Rock 160523
Fog of January Today, Yesterday Today, Yesterday Sad Ballad 160523
G.Killed Spring Electronic Rock 160523
SoLaTi What More Can I Say Solatic RnB 160523
타린 그 이유가 내겐 아픔이었네 좋은 사람 OST Part.4 Ballad 160523
Advanced Marionette (feat.예하나) Marionette EDM Jazz Funk 160524
DJ Hanmin Pull Up (ft. Goldtea) Pull Up Reggae Trap 160524
Joseph Kim Nocturne Lullaby Pieces Piano (Instrumental) 160524
O'Lee 봄날은간다 리마스터드 봄날은간다 리마스터드 Mysterious Ambient Orchestral (Instrumental) 160524
라나 바람 Hello Rana Alternative 160524
성훈 니가 좋아 니가 좋아 Pop Rock 160524
한올 널 위한 노래 작은 위로 Acoustic Pop 160524
Cloudele Kkot Kkot Rock 160525
Kim Younggoan Farewell Soft Rock Ballad 160525
Lawrence Yun Love Piano (Instrumental) 160525
강민지 뒷걸음질 뒷걸음질 Bright Pop 160525
윤빛나라 다시 올까요 마녀의 성 OST Part.21 Ballad 160525
정인빈 엄마 그 이름 엄마 그 이름 Funk Ballad 160525
Amazing Visual 그 남자의 사정 Folk 160526
GIRO, JAINU Weird (the weirdest ver.) Weird RnB 160526
정우열 나만의 시간 RELAXATION VOL.1 Piano (Instrumental) 160526
Brodin Ray Clementi: Sonatina Op.36, No.3 1st Mov 봄의 클래식, May 4집 Piano (Instrumental) 160527
Dust Out Take Off Rock/Metal 160527
Sugardonut Flower In The Night Piece of Night Alternative Rock 160527
Sunjaewon Limsangmok Everything is like you RnB 160527
리디아 사랑이니까 아픈거겠죠 마녀의 성 OST Part.22 Ballad 160527
에이먼 Remember Remember Alternative Rock 160527
Awesome Day Breathe Ballad 160528
1253* Glimmering (ft. Bass) Acoustic Ballad 160530
BAND11 Loversbucks Present Bright Folk 160530
Dalice in wonderland Have a girl friend? Bright Folk 160530
HOA TAKE OFF THE SHOES ON THE LINE NO.9 Alternative Rock 160530
씨팍 Dope Dope Hiphop 160530
정나현 어제처럼 마녀의 성 OST Part.23 Ballad 160530
최영민 당신이 궁금해요 보통의피아노 201605 Piano (Instrumental) 160530
헤이디 연애의 거리 연애의 거리 Pop Rock 160530
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Gaming & Dating! mit YetiVin, FrauZimmy, Rainer Schauder, Bell, DaddelKlub - Schon Gehört? PICKING UP CUTE GIRLS IN CHINESE in Miami - YouTube DATING, DIVORCE & MENTAL HEALTH / Q&A 2020 / Caitlyn Neier Jimmy Zhang - YouTube Jimmy Interviews Cardi B - YouTube IVF Due Date vs Dating Scan Due Date Confusion PICKING UP GIRLS IN CHINESE 2 - YouTube

Zimmy - Elmwood Park, Wisconsin, United States of America ...

  1. Gaming & Dating! mit YetiVin, FrauZimmy, Rainer Schauder, Bell, DaddelKlub - Schon Gehört?
  3. DATING, DIVORCE & MENTAL HEALTH / Q&A 2020 / Caitlyn Neier
  4. Jimmy Zhang - YouTube
  5. Jimmy Interviews Cardi B - YouTube
  6. IVF Due Date vs Dating Scan Due Date Confusion
  8. Pregnancy week 12! Dating scan!

Videos drop every Tuesday Night! I talk to the camera about random shit and I talk to random people on the street about random shit but I act like I've known... IVF Due Date vs Dating Scan Due Date Confusion At 38 weeks pregnant, in my third trimester. I have just been informed that infact my due date is incorrect and I was right all along that my IVF due ... Cardi B cracks Jimmy up about her name's origin, how fiancé Migos' Offset went out of his way for his proposal and why she already feels like a winner after ... Mai Zimmy 124,574 views. 11:30. Online Dating Do's and Don'ts for Women Over 50 Engaged at Any Age Jaki Sabourin - Duration: 22:16. Engaged at Any Age Recommended for you. 22:16. Your favorite chinese fob goes to pick up girls in miami Get 20% OFF Manscaped + Free Shipping + Free Gift with code JZ20 at http://bit.ly/2wADiVz Instagram:... Dating scan! Chloe Rose. Loading... Unsubscribe from Chloe Rose? ... Mai Zimmy 374,013 views. 13:41. DAY IN THE LIFE 12 WEEK SCAN - Duration: 9:20. Mrs Meldrum 17,146 views. Support a brotha on patreon: (also EXCLUSIVE CONTENT) https://www.patreon.com/UnfilteredJimmy Follow my Instagram for 1st dibs on new merch: https://www.inst... Valentinstag! Da will man doch was schönes unternehmen mit der/dem Liebsten, oder? Oder ist der Freitag nicht vielleicht doch der perfekte Tag um endlich Assassins Creed durchzurocken? Welche ...